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Beans

 

Difference between Beans and Peas

 

Peas and beans are both members of the same families i.e. Fabaceae or leguminosae, and are also sometimes referred to as pulses. The major difference between peas and beans is that peas have a hollow stem and beans have a solid stem. Another difference is that beans climb by wrapping their stems around their support whilst peas have little tendrils which do the twining. Both peas and beans have climbing and dwarf varieties, with the climbing versions requiring support to climb up in order to produce a full heavy crop.

 

History

 

Legumes have always been a crop of utmost importance to human beings and all major civilizations have heavily relied on different types of  legume in their diet at some time or another.

In some Eastern cultures, legumes have been a basic dietary staple for more than 20,000 years. It is now widely accepted that common beans such Pinto beans were first domesticated over 6,000 years ago in  Central America and the Andean regions and were widely used in both the Aztec and Inca cultures. As might be expected, natural migrations spread the different varieties of beans throughout the world.

Throughout history, beans have been used in many ways as well as for food. The Moche, a civilization who pre-dated the Incas in Peru, drew symbols on beans as an a form of early written record keeping, in ancient Egypt beans were revere red with items such as Fava Beans having been found in Pharaohs' tombs put there in readiness for the afterlife and early Greeks and Romans used beans to cast their votes during trials.  It is also known that c 1500 BC, parts of present day Asia were growing and using soybeans.


It should be noted that at the same time, grains such as wheat, rice, corn, barley and millet were also grown and eaten with various beans as staples. Today, we know that beans and grains eaten together provide form a complete protein, essential for growth and development, and this combination can be seen in many traditional dishes worldwide such as peas and rice, beans and corn and chickpeas and couscous.

European explorers further aided the spread and exchange of beans and grains, resulting in a huge expansion of the numerous varieties all over the world with their relatively cheap production making them an invaluable staple in many countries.


peas are a good source of B vitamins, potassium, iron and fiber, with the added bonus of containing lots of complex carbohydrates, little fat and no cholesterol. They are inexpensive and a healthy option to include in your 5 - A -Day, with one serving of cooked beans (about 90ml/3fl.oz/a handful) containing around 80 calories. In addition, beans are thought to help prevent colon cancer and reduce blood cholesterol.

If you are not used to eating beans on a regular basis, the following should be taken into consideration.


Beans alone are not complete proteins so if you want to use them to replace other protein sources such as meat, poultry and fish, be sure to eat them with items such as rice, couscous, corn, bulgur and other grain based items such as tortillas, nuts and seeds.


In some people, a sudden large increase in eating beans can cause intestinal discomfort. You can minimize adverse effects by:


1 . Gradually increasing your intake


2 . Making sure you change the soaking water several times


3 . ensuring you drink sufficient water (don't over-do it)


4 . Exercising regularly


The latter two points encourage your gastrointestinal system to process the increased dietary fibre.

 

 

Types of Dried Peas

 

 
Black-eyed peas
Other Names:   cowpea;  black-eye bean black-eyed Suzy;   China bean;   Southern pea  
Substitutes:Yellow-eyed peas;  Pigeon peas
Ceci bean - See Chick Pea Congo pea - See Pigeon Pea Cowpea - see Black-eyed Pea
     
 
 
Chickpeas
Other names : garbanzo bean; garbanzo pea; ceci bean; Egyptian pea; kabli chana
Substitutes:Lima beans
Gandules - See Pigeon Pea Garbanzo - See Chick Pea Goongoo pea See Pigeon Pea
     
 
 
Green Split pea
Other Names:  Matar dal
Substitutes:Yellow Split peas,  large Lentils
 
     
 
Pigeon peas
Other Names:   goongoo pea; gunga pea; Congo pea
Substitutes:Black-Eyed peas,   Yellow-eyed peas
 
     
 
 
Yellow Split pea
Other Names:yellow matar dal    
Substitutes:Green Split Pea,  Black-Eyed peas,   Yellow-eyed peas, large  lentils 
 
     
   
         
 

 

Types of Dried Beans

 

 
Adzuki bean
Other Names:Azuki bean; Aduki bean; Field pea; Feijao bean
Substitutes: Red Kidney beans;   Black Adzuki beans
 
     
 
 
Anasazi beans
Other names :
Substitutes:Cranberry beans;  Pinto beans   
Asuki bean - See Adzuki Bean Azuki bean - See Adzuki Bean
     
 
 
Black Adzuki bean
Other Names:  Black Azuki bean; Asuki bean
Substitutes:Adzuki beans 
 
     
 
Black Bean
Other Names:  Turtle bean; Frijole Negro; Spanish black bean
Substitutes:Calypso bean; Black soybean; Adzuki bean
 
     
 
 
Bolita Bean
Other Names
Substitutes:Cannellini bean; Pinto bean; Chilli bean; Cranberry bean 
 
     
 
 
Borlotti Bean
Other Names:  Cranberry bean; Roman bean; Fagiolo Romano
Substitutes:Cranberry beans; Cannellini bean; Pinto bean; Chilli bean 
Boston bean  -  Seenavy bean
Broad bean  - Seefava bean
Butter bean  - See Fava bean
     
         
 
Cannellini bean
Other Names:White Kidney bean;   Fazolia bean  
Substitutes: Great Northern bean; Navy bean; Flageolets
 
     
 
 
Calypso bean
Other Names:  Orca bean; Ying Yang beans
Substitutes:Cannellini beans;  Black bean 
 
     
 
 
Chilli Bean
Other Names: Pink bean   
Substitutes:Pinto beans;   Red Kidney beans;   Rattlesnake Beans
Cranberry Bean - see Borlotti Bean English bean - See Fava bean
     
         
 
Fava bean
Other Names:  Lima bean;Butter bean;   Madagascar bean;   Ful;  Habas
Substitutes:Chickpeas;  Cannellini Beans;   Soybeans;  Navy Beans
NB.   Broad Beans are the fresh (green) version of Fava beans
Field Pea - See adzuki bean
     
 
 
Flageolet
Other Names:  Fayot
Substitutes:GreatNorthern beans;  Navy Beans;  Cannellini beans  
Frijole Negro - See black bean Ful - See fava bean
     
 
 
Great Northern bean
Other Names:
Substitutes:Navy beans;  Cannellini beans;  Flageolet Beans;  Lima beans 
Habas - See fava bean
Kidney Beans  -  See Red kidney beans
NB  
A whole  family of kidney-shaped beans which come in various sizes and colours and  includes  cannellini beans and  flageolets
     
         
 
Lupini Beans
Other Names:Tremmoco
Substitutes:Fava Beans;  Lima Beans;  Soybeans 
Madagascar beans  -  See Fava beans 
Mexican black bean   -  See black bean. 
     
 
 
Mung bean
Other Names:Mungo bean;  Mung pea;  Green gram
Substitutes:Pigeon Pea
 
     
 
 
Navy bean
Other Names:Fagioli;   Haricot Bean;  Boston Navy Bean;   Pea Bean
Substitutes:Great Northern Beans;  Lima beans;   Cannellini Beans
Pea Bean - See navy bean.
Pink Bean   - See Chilli bean
     
         
 
Pinto Bean
Other Names:Cowboy Beans;  Mexican Beans
Substitutes:Chilli Beans;   Kidney Beans;   Borlotti Beans;  Adzuki bean
 
     
 
 
Rattlesnake Beans
Other Names:
Substitutes:Pinto beans;   Chilli Beans;   Red Kidney beans
 
     
 
 
Red Beans
Other Names:Mexican Red Beans   
Substitutes:Pinto Beans;  Red Kidney Beans;  Adzuki Beans
 
     
         
 
Red Kidney Beans
Other Names:Rajma
Substitutes:Red Beans;  Pinto Beans;   Chilli Beans;   Adzuki Beans  
 
     
 
 
Rice Bean
Other Names:
Substitutes:Rice;    Lentils
 
     
 
 
Soya Beans
Other Names:Soy Bean;  Soybeans
Substitutes: 
 
     
         
 
Swedish Brown Beans
Other Names:
Substitutes: Cranberry Beans;   Pinto Beans
Turtle Bean - See Black Beans
Wax bean  - Seelima bean
     
       
         
         
 

 

 

General Cooking

 


Most dried beans need to be pre-soaked for at least 4 hours, preferably 8 before being cooked as do chickpeas. Some say not to bother soaking dried peas but doing so makes cooking a lot quicker. Lentils do not need pre-soaking. Once prepared, dried beans should be put into cold water, brought to the boil and boiled rapidly for about 15 minutes. Then reduce the heat and simmer for about 1 hour 30 minutes. If desired, skim off any foam which forms on the top of the cooking water though this isn't entirely necessary as it is merely water-soluble protein which is released from the beans.

Beans can also be cooked in a pressure cooker which drastically reduces the booking time. Below is a chart showing the comparison in cooking times for a selection of beans

 

 

Beans (soaked) Saucepan Pressure Cooker @15lb
Black Beans 1 to 1½ Hrs 5 to 8 Mins
Garbanzo Beans 1 to 1½ Hrs 5 to 7 Mins
Great Northern Beans 1 to 1½ Hrs 5 to 7 Mins
Lima Beans, Large 45 to 60 Mins Not Recommended
Lima Beans, Baby 1 Hr Not Recommended
Navy or Small Whites 1 to 1½ Hrs 5 to 8 Mins
Pink Beans 1 to 1½ Hrs 6 to 8 Mins
Pinto Beans 1 to 1½ Hrs 5 to 7 Mins
Red Beans 1 to 1½ Hrs 6 to 8 Mins
Red Kidney Beans 1 to 1½ Hrs 5 to 8 Mins
Soybeans 3 Hrs 12 to 15 Mins
 
 

 


Unless you have a slow cooker with a "high" setting, cooking beans from fresh, even if they have been soaked, is not advisable. If you have a high setting, try cooking on high for 3 hours then reducing to low and cooking for a further 6 hours. Care must be taken when cooking on the high setting as a large amount of evaporation will occur so the beans should be carefully monitored to ensure the liquid level is kept topped up.

 

 

Freezing

 


Cooked beans do freeze quite well although better defrosting results are achieved if they are slightly undercooked before freezing.

 

Equivalents:

 


Most beans 1lb dried beans = 480ml/16fl.oz/2 cups dried

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



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Beans

 

Difference between Beans and Peas

 

Peas and beans are both members of the same families i.e. Fabaceae or leguminosae, and are also sometimes referred to as pulses. The major difference between peas and beans is that peas have a hollow stem and beans have a solid stem. Another difference is that beans climb by wrapping their stems around their support whilst peas have little tendrils which do the twining. Both peas and beans have climbing and dwarf varieties, with the climbing versions requiring support to climb up in order to produce a full heavy crop.

 

History

 

Legumes have always been a crop of utmost importance to human beings and all major civilizations have heavily relied on different types of  legume in their diet at some time or another.

In some Eastern cultures, legumes have been a basic dietary staple for more than 20,000 years. It is now widely accepted that common beans such Pinto beans were first domesticated over 6,000 years ago in  Central America and the Andean regions and were widely used in both the Aztec and Inca cultures. As might be expected, natural migrations spread the different varieties of beans throughout the world.

Throughout history, beans have been used in many ways as well as for food. The Moche, a civilization who pre-dated the Incas in Peru, drew symbols on beans as an a form of early written record keeping, in ancient Egypt beans were revere red with items such as Fava Beans having been found in Pharaohs' tombs put there in readiness for the afterlife and early Greeks and Romans used beans to cast their votes during trials.  It is also known that c 1500 BC, parts of present day Asia were growing and using soybeans.


It should be noted that at the same time, grains such as wheat, rice, corn, barley and millet were also grown and eaten with various beans as staples. Today, we know that beans and grains eaten together provide form a complete protein, essential for growth and development, and this combination can be seen in many traditional dishes worldwide such as peas and rice, beans and corn and chickpeas and couscous.

European explorers further aided the spread and exchange of beans and grains, resulting in a huge expansion of the numerous varieties all over the world with their relatively cheap production making them an invaluable staple in many countries.


peas are a good source of B vitamins, potassium, iron and fiber, with the added bonus of containing lots of complex carbohydrates, little fat and no cholesterol. They are inexpensive and a healthy option to include in your 5 - A -Day, with one serving of cooked beans (about 90ml/3fl.oz/a handful) containing around 80 calories. In addition, beans are thought to help prevent colon cancer and reduce blood cholesterol.

If you are not used to eating beans on a regular basis, the following should be taken into consideration.


Beans alone are not complete proteins so if you want to use them to replace other protein sources such as meat, poultry and fish, be sure to eat them with items such as rice, couscous, corn, bulgur and other grain based items such as tortillas, nuts and seeds.


In some people, a sudden large increase in eating beans can cause intestinal discomfort. You can minimize adverse effects by:


1 . Gradually increasing your intake


2 . Making sure you change the soaking water several times


3 . ensuring you drink sufficient water (don't over-do it)


4 . Exercising regularly


The latter two points encourage your gastrointestinal system to process the increased dietary fibre.

 

 

Types of Dried Peas

 

 
Black-eyed peas
Other Names:   cowpea;  black-eye bean black-eyed Suzy;   China bean;   Southern pea  
Substitutes:Yellow-eyed peas;  Pigeon peas
Ceci bean - See Chick Pea Congo pea - See Pigeon Pea Cowpea - see Black-eyed Pea
     
 
 
Chickpeas
Other names : garbanzo bean; garbanzo pea; ceci bean; Egyptian pea; kabli chana
Substitutes:Lima beans
Gandules - See Pigeon Pea Garbanzo - See Chick Pea Goongoo pea See Pigeon Pea
     
 
 
Green Split pea
Other Names:  Matar dal
Substitutes:Yellow Split peas,  large Lentils
 
     
 
Pigeon peas
Other Names:   goongoo pea; gunga pea; Congo pea
Substitutes:Black-Eyed peas,   Yellow-eyed peas
 
     
 
 
Yellow Split pea
Other Names:yellow matar dal    
Substitutes:Green Split Pea,  Black-Eyed peas,   Yellow-eyed peas, large  lentils 
 
     
   
         
 

 

Types of Dried Beans

 

 
Adzuki bean
Other Names:Azuki bean; Aduki bean; Field pea; Feijao bean
Substitutes: Red Kidney beans;   Black Adzuki beans
 
     
 
 
Anasazi beans
Other names :
Substitutes:Cranberry beans;  Pinto beans   
Asuki bean - See Adzuki Bean Azuki bean - See Adzuki Bean
     
 
 
Black Adzuki bean
Other Names:  Black Azuki bean; Asuki bean
Substitutes:Adzuki beans 
 
     
 
Black Bean
Other Names:  Turtle bean; Frijole Negro; Spanish black bean
Substitutes:Calypso bean; Black soybean; Adzuki bean
 
     
 
 
Bolita Bean
Other Names
Substitutes:Cannellini bean; Pinto bean; Chilli bean; Cranberry bean 
 
     
 
 
Borlotti Bean
Other Names:  Cranberry bean; Roman bean; Fagiolo Romano
Substitutes:Cranberry beans; Cannellini bean; Pinto bean; Chilli bean 
Boston bean  -  Seenavy bean
Broad bean  - Seefava bean
Butter bean  - See Fava bean
     
         
 
Cannellini bean
Other Names:White Kidney bean;   Fazolia bean  
Substitutes: Great Northern bean; Navy bean; Flageolets
 
     
 
 
Calypso bean
Other Names:  Orca bean; Ying Yang beans
Substitutes:Cannellini beans;  Black bean 
 
     
 
 
Chilli Bean
Other Names: Pink bean   
Substitutes:Pinto beans;   Red Kidney beans;   Rattlesnake Beans
Cranberry Bean - see Borlotti Bean English bean - See Fava bean
     
         
 
Fava bean
Other Names:  Lima bean;Butter bean;   Madagascar bean;   Ful;  Habas
Substitutes:Chickpeas;  Cannellini Beans;   Soybeans;  Navy Beans
NB.   Broad Beans are the fresh (green) version of Fava beans
Field Pea - See adzuki bean
     
 
 
Flageolet
Other Names:  Fayot
Substitutes:GreatNorthern beans;  Navy Beans;  Cannellini beans  
Frijole Negro - See black bean Ful - See fava bean
     
 
 
Great Northern bean
Other Names:
Substitutes:Navy beans;  Cannellini beans;  Flageolet Beans;  Lima beans 
Habas - See fava bean
Kidney Beans  -  See Red kidney beans
NB  
A whole  family of kidney-shaped beans which come in various sizes and colours and  includes  cannellini beans and  flageolets
     
         
 
Lupini Beans
Other Names:Tremmoco
Substitutes:Fava Beans;  Lima Beans;  Soybeans 
Madagascar beans  -  See Fava beans 
Mexican black bean   -  See black bean. 
     
 
 
Mung bean
Other Names:Mungo bean;  Mung pea;  Green gram
Substitutes:Pigeon Pea
 
     
 
 
Navy bean
Other Names:Fagioli;   Haricot Bean;  Boston Navy Bean;   Pea Bean
Substitutes:Great Northern Beans;  Lima beans;   Cannellini Beans
Pea Bean - See navy bean.
Pink Bean   - See Chilli bean
     
         
 
Pinto Bean
Other Names:Cowboy Beans;  Mexican Beans
Substitutes:Chilli Beans;   Kidney Beans;   Borlotti Beans;  Adzuki bean
 
     
 
 
Rattlesnake Beans
Other Names:
Substitutes:Pinto beans;   Chilli Beans;   Red Kidney beans
 
     
 
 
Red Beans
Other Names:Mexican Red Beans   
Substitutes:Pinto Beans;  Red Kidney Beans;  Adzuki Beans
 
     
         
 
Red Kidney Beans
Other Names:Rajma
Substitutes:Red Beans;  Pinto Beans;   Chilli Beans;   Adzuki Beans  
 
     
 
 
Rice Bean
Other Names:
Substitutes:Rice;    Lentils
 
     
 
 
Soya Beans
Other Names:Soy Bean;  Soybeans
Substitutes: 
 
     
         
 
Swedish Brown Beans
Other Names:
Substitutes: Cranberry Beans;   Pinto Beans
Turtle Bean - See Black Beans
Wax bean  - Seelima bean
     
       
         
         
 

 

 

General Cooking

 


Most dried beans need to be pre-soaked for at least 4 hours, preferably 8 before being cooked as do chickpeas. Some say not to bother soaking dried peas but doing so makes cooking a lot quicker. Lentils do not need pre-soaking. Once prepared, dried beans should be put into cold water, brought to the boil and boiled rapidly for about 15 minutes. Then reduce the heat and simmer for about 1 hour 30 minutes. If desired, skim off any foam which forms on the top of the cooking water though this isn't entirely necessary as it is merely water-soluble protein which is released from the beans.

Beans can also be cooked in a pressure cooker which drastically reduces the booking time. Below is a chart showing the comparison in cooking times for a selection of beans

 

 

Beans (soaked) Saucepan Pressure Cooker @15lb
Black Beans 1 to 1½ Hrs 5 to 8 Mins
Garbanzo Beans 1 to 1½ Hrs 5 to 7 Mins
Great Northern Beans 1 to 1½ Hrs 5 to 7 Mins
Lima Beans, Large 45 to 60 Mins Not Recommended
Lima Beans, Baby 1 Hr Not Recommended
Navy or Small Whites 1 to 1½ Hrs 5 to 8 Mins
Pink Beans 1 to 1½ Hrs 6 to 8 Mins
Pinto Beans 1 to 1½ Hrs 5 to 7 Mins
Red Beans 1 to 1½ Hrs 6 to 8 Mins
Red Kidney Beans 1 to 1½ Hrs 5 to 8 Mins
Soybeans 3 Hrs 12 to 15 Mins
 
 

 


Unless you have a slow cooker with a "high" setting, cooking beans from fresh, even if they have been soaked, is not advisable. If you have a high setting, try cooking on high for 3 hours then reducing to low and cooking for a further 6 hours. Care must be taken when cooking on the high setting as a large amount of evaporation will occur so the beans should be carefully monitored to ensure the liquid level is kept topped up.

 

 

Freezing

 


Cooked beans do freeze quite well although better defrosting results are achieved if they are slightly undercooked before freezing.

 

Equivalents:

 


Most beans 1lb dried beans = 480ml/16fl.oz/2 cups dried